Received: 17 February 2021
Accepted: 18 April 2021
Published: 06 June 2021
Resumo: A pandemia por COVID-19 ultrapassou as barreiras continentais e impôs a tomada de importantes medidas que afetaram todas as áreas que amparam às relações sociais. No contexto educacional, o fechamento das escolas expôs o debate em torno da substituição das aulas presenciais por modelos à distância. Nessa perspectiva, o presente estudo reflete sobre o impacto da pandemia por COVID-19 no contexto da educação socioemocional através de uma abordagem qualitativa. Para tanto, optou-se pela realização de entrevista semiestruturada com sete docentes. Tomou-se como critério de inclusão a participação voluntária de professores que lecionam a disciplina projeto de vida em escolas de educação básica da rede Pública Estadual e que participaram dos processos formativos em educação socioemocional. As entrevistas aconteceram através de contato telefônico, atendendo as normas de isolamento previstas nos protocolos de biossegurança devido à pandemia e foram gravadas para posterior transcrição. Os discursos obtidos foram tratados pela análise de conteúdo de Bardin e foram identificadas as categorias: prática docente, planejamento e ensino remoto. Concluiu-se que o isolamento social decorrente da pandemia repercutiu de forma negativa na educação socioemocional mediada pela disciplina projeto de vida. As aulas presenciais representavam um apoio emocional tanto para os jovens, como para os professores e sua transposição para o formato remoto não contemplou de forma significativa a vivência dos temas propostos para disciplina.
Palavras-chave: Educação Socioemocional, Formação de Professores, Pandemia, COVID-19.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic crossed continental barriers and imposed important measures that affected all areas that support social relations. In the educational context, the closure of schools opened the debate around the replacement of face-to-face classes by distance learning models. In this perspective, this study reflects on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of socioemotional education through a qualitative approach. To this end, we chose to conduct a semi-structured interview with seven teachers. The inclusion criterion was the voluntary participation of teachers who work on the Project of Life discipline in basic education schools of the State Public network and who participated in the socioemotional education training processes. The interviews took place through telephone contact, respecting the isolation rules provided for in the biosafety protocols due to the pandemic. The interviews were recorded for later transcription. The responses obtained were treated by Bardin's content analysis and the following categories were identified: teaching practice, planning and remote teaching. It was concluded that the social isolation resulting from the pandemic had a negative impact on social-emotional learning mediated by the Project of Life discipline. Given the above, face-to-face classes represented emotional support for both young people and teachers. And, in the opinion of the interviewed teachers, the transposition of the classes to the remote format did not consider significantly the experience of the themes proposed by the discipline.
Keywords: Social-emotional Learning, Teacher Training, Pandemic, COVID-19.
Resumen: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha traspasado barreras continentales e impuesto importantes medidas que afectan a todas las áreas que sustentan las relaciones sociales. En el contexto educativo, el cierre de escuelas expuso el debate sobre la sustitución de las clases presenciales por modelos a distancia. En esta perspectiva, este estudio propone la reflexión sobre el impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en el contexto de la educación socioemocional a través de un enfoque cualitativo. Para eso, se aplicó la metodología de entrevista semiestructurada a siete docentes. Se utilizó como criterio de inclusión la participación voluntaria de profesores que imparten la asignatura Proyecto de Vida en escuelas de educación básica de la red pública estatal que participaron de los procesos formativos en educación socioemocional. Las entrevistas ocurrieron a través de contacto telefónico, según las normas de aislamiento social de los protocolos de bioseguridad relativos a la pandemia, y fueron grabadas para su posterior transcripción. Se evaluaron los discursos obtenidos por medio del análisis de contenido de Bardin y se identificaron las categorías: práctica docente, planificación y enseñanza a distancia. Se concluyó que el aislamiento social derivado de la pandemia tuvo un impacto negativo en la educación socioemocional mediada por la asignatura Proyecto de Vida. Ante lo expuesto, las clases presenciales representan un apoyo emocional tanto para los jóvenes como para los docentes, y su transposición al formato remoto, según los profesores, no consideró de forma significativa la vivencia de los temas propuestos para las asignaturas.
Palabras clave: Educación Socioemocional, Formación de Profesores, Pandemia, COVID-19.
Since the COVID-19 pandemic quickly spread across the world with a high mortality rate, several countries in the world have experienced - and are experiencing - political, economic and health crises unprecedented in human history. Social distance, seen as an immediate contingency to delay the spread of the virus, directly affected several social systems, including education (GRANDISOLI et al., 2020).
The total closure of schools occurred in many countries, as like in Brazil, as a conservative strategy to contain COVID-19. However, other approaches were observed, such as the progressive closure of schools, in which the interruption of classes occurred initially in risk areas, evaluating the number of positive cases for the adoption of more or less restrictive measures; and partial closure, where only early childhood education and early years continued to have face-to-face classes, or keeping schools open, as occurred in Sweden, which is one of the countries that invest the most in education in the world, the interruption of classes would represent a high cost (OLIVEIRA et al., 2020).
In the educational scope of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, the decision to close schools altogether from March 18, 2020, led public and private units to outline pedagogical strategies in accordance with the norms of the National and State Education Councils. Resolution No. 4 of April 3, 2020 of the State Council established the operational guidelines for the development of school activities and considered including in the calendars of the 2020 school year ways of adopting non face-to-face studies (SERGIPE, 2020).
The decision brought up some reflections on the negative impacts of the pandemic on the educational context, namely: the sudden replacement of face-to-face classes by distance models especially in basic education, the inequalities in access to virtual learning tools among students, the fragility in the training of teachers to work with didactic-pedagogical models based on the use of technologies, the negative impacts on the lives of students with socioeconomic vulnerability and the side effects that impacted on the socio-emotional learning of young people (MACHADO, 2020).
In this perspective, it is important to consider that an emotionally unstable and socially isolated student is unlikely to have a satisfactory school performance, no matter how good the teaching strategies. As well as emotional support for teachers who abruptly had to restructure their distance learning practices.
Research by Ambiel et al., (2015) and Abed (2016) points out that the use of social-emotional learning (SEL) interventions in schools has been associated with positive results, such as improved academic performance and emotional skills, helping to develop self-regulation, reducing levels of stress among students and teachers, and conduct problems.
Based on this theoretical panorama, the definition of SEL mentioned by Motta; Romani (2019) was used:
Social-emotional learning is the process of acquiring skills necessary to recognize and manage emotions, develop care and concern for others, establish positive relationships, make responsible decisions and effectively manage challenging situations (MOTTA; ROMANI, 2019, p.50).
In this perspective of expanding the pedagogical action at school, at the state level, support for the development of socio-emotional learning had already been implemented before the pandemic through the discipline Project of Life (PV), which is an integral part of a new curricular proposal for high school that was gradually implemented from 2017 in some state public schools.
The implementation of this new curricular model is part of the State Education Plan (PEE) for the fulfillment of the goals agreed in the National Education Plan (PNE). In the National document, twenty goals are defined which are capable of improving access, permanence and quality of Brazilian education, with an execution deadline until 2024 (BRASIL, 2014).
Among the many strategies that foster the achievement of its goals, it is worth mentioning the expansion of the offer of full-time education with increase the workload and the importance of National Common Curricular Base that guarantees elements of fundamental formation to citizenship and life in society.
In this sense, in the elaboration of the PEE, the strategy was to reformulate the high school curricular organization to the integral modality, contemplating the BNCC (areas of language, nature, human sciences and mathematics), a diversified part (Project of Life discipline, electives disciplines, guided study, experimental practices, foreign languages) and the integrating components (reception, protagonism and tutoring) that would need to be articulated in order to contribute to the integral human formation of students.
Thus, the Project of Life discipline, as a curricular component, became the centrality of the curriculum of the New High School and the BNCC (National Common Curricular Base) of High School. Both remodeled the organization of the disciplines by areas of knowledge, adding formative and elective itineraries to the general basic formation, among them the PV discipline (ESCOLA EDUCA MAIS, 2016).
This privileged space in the curriculum of two weekly schedules aims to provide students with a careful reflection on how to manage their thoughts, feelings and emotions in order to establish healthy bonds with themselves and with others, preparing them for planning their actions and making decisions based on their life projects. To this end, pedagogical practices aligned with the PV discipline require training in which the cognitive, socio-emotional elements and personal experiences form the basis for the consolidation of values, knowledge, skills and abilities that assist the young person in the learning process and in the construction of a productive and happy life (COSTA, 2020).
For the construction of this affirmative and expanded image of the future, the discipline has a structured, systematic and differentiated curriculum for each series. The pedagogical proposal for the discipline in the first year of high school is centered on four themes, namely: identity, values, social responsibility and skills for the 21st century. For the second year, classes are grouped in: dreaming about the future, planning the future, defining actions and reviewing life project.
In the third year, the contents meet the central theme “Post Medium: A World of Possibilities”, whose purpose is to support students in what is their focus, whether it is entering university or getting into the world of work, or in another area of the productive field that complements their academic orientation training.
In this perspective, considering the importance of the discipline in the integral formation of the young person, the formation of the teacher to teach it is a relevant prerequisite. To this end, only teachers who are part of the full-time high school teaching staff will be able to teach the discipline, with no restrictions on their area of training, as long as they participate in the training processes in socio-emotional competences, so that they find in themselves conditions to develop their own competences.
However, the absence of interaction between students and teachers due to the social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic broke this cycle of emotional support for young people. In addition, this pandemic moment has caused insecurity for teachers regarding the continuity of PV classes after the pandemic due to the rupture of the relationship of proximity, empathy and affection between teachers and their students.
In this sense, this study aimed to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of social-emotional learning from the perspectives of teachers who teach the PV discipline in basic education in the state public network in Sergipe, Brazil.
It is a qualitative study that presents itself as an epistemological conception already grounded in the educational field (ZANETTE, 2017). Having as main objective the construction of knowledge, this methodology serves as an investigative tool for the purpose of this research as it allows the understanding of the behavior from the perspective of the research subjects.
For Câmara (2013), qualitative research allows to check how people consider an experience, idea or event. In this sense, the adoption of qualitative research is justified by providing moments of reflection in relation to the act of thinking, feeling and acting by the teacher (MENDONÇA; GOMES, 2017).
In order to achieve the objectives outlined in this study, it was decided to conduct a semi-structured interview with seven teachers. The inclusion criterion was the voluntary participation of teachers who teach the Project of Life discipline in basic education schools of the State Public network and who participated in the socioemotional education training processes. Interview was taken as an advantageous tool for allowing the immediate capture of the desired information and for enabling clarifications and effective adaptations to obtain the information relevant to the object of the research. The surveys were carried out individually through telephone contact in compliance with the isolation rules provided for in the state health protocols. They were recorded with the consent of the teachers, expressed in a free and clarified term, guaranteeing the anonymity and confidentiality of the results, among other ethical considerations that must be expressed in any research involving human beings. For a better use of the content of the answers and for later transcription, the content of the interview was structured in four questions:
· Tell us about your Life Project classes before the pandemic. In your opinion, what was the student / student and student / teacher relationship like?
· In view of the Covid-19 pandemic and the new formats for the continuity of classes, among them, carrying out classes online, how do you feel?
· Thinking about the Project of Life discipline, how do you plan to hold your classes?
· How do you expect the return of face-to-face educational activities to be about your relationship with students and your post-pandemic teaching practice?
For the analysis of qualitative data, Content Analysis proposed by teacher Laurence Bardin (1977) was used. In Bardin's perspective, this methodological technique can be applied in several discourses and to all forms of communication. To this end, the use of Content Analysis provides for three distinct phases for its realization, namely:
The first phase is pre-analytical when the research was organized from the initial contact with the data collection documents. The choice of documents considered the relevance of those that will be effectively used in the research. Then, the hypotheses and objectives were formulated. According to Bardin (2011), hypotheses are early explanations of the observed phenomenon. In other words, they are initial statements that can be proven or refuted at the end of the study. This stage was concluded with the development of indicators that will guide the interpretation and formal preparation of the material.
In the second phase, the material was explored from the transcription and editing of the recorded interviews. On that occasion, language vices and possible spelling, cohesion and coherence errors were maintained. Subsequently, the choice of indexes or categories that emerged from the hypotheses and considerations of the interviewees was made.
The themes that were repeated most often were cut into comparable units of categorization for thematic analysis (classification) and coding modalities for data recording. Next, the themes were grouped into defined categories based on the interviewees' statements. According to Bardin (1977, p. 118), "classifying elements into categories requires an investigation of what each one has in common with the others. What will allow their grouping is the common part between them." The categories can be created a priori or a posteriori, that is, based only on theory or after data collection ".
For the codification of the verbalizations of all respondents, the letter “E” was used and, as a differentiating code, the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in reference to the number of subjects who participated in this research. Thus, the interviewees were renamed maintaining the confidentiality of their identities, as follows: E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6 and E7.
With the transcribed data, the fluctuating reading of the interviews was made. Therefore, at the time of the construction of the categories, special attention was paid for considering the verbalizations of the interviewees in full (CÂMARA, 2013).
Such conduct enabled the understanding of how the PV teachers experienced the training in social-emotional learning from the construction of new meanings to their teaching practice.
Results and discussion
The semi-structured interview was conducted with seven teachers who work in two different schools in the state public network, who are or have been teachers of the Project of Life discipline and who went through the training processes in socioemotional education to teach the discipline. Previously, for the validation of the interview, it was applied to two PV teachers based in another state teaching unit.
The results are presented below, discussed in the light of the literature data. Along the lines outlined, the interviews were applied, prescribed and analyzed. This study aimed to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of social-emotional learning from the perspectives of teachers who teach the PV discipline in basic education.
In the sample surveyed, six respondents are female and one is male. The age range of the respondents varied from 29 to 47 years (average age of 38 years). Considering the division between the disciplines by the area they teach, there are a history teacher, a biology teacher, a geography teacher, a math teacher, an English teacher, an arts teacher, a geography teacher and a Spanish teacher. All teachers are civil servants of the Sergipe State Secretary of Education, with teaching time varying between 11 and 22 years (average of 16 years). Such information was obtained in the preliminary moment to the application of the interview.
We proposed the results and discussions be presented in complementary sections. In the first one, the representations that teachers have about their practices and their relations with students before the pandemic are discussed. In the second one, the teaching praxis during the pandemic is discussed. And, in the last section, the expectations regarding the return to face-to-face classes and the changes in the offer structure are discussed, including the possibility of a return to hybrid education.
|Category 1. Teaching practice|
|Definition: Before the pandemic, Project of Life classes took place using a projector or promoting conversation circles in classrooms or other school environments. The students were participative and felt at ease and welcomed. They recognize that the Project of Life classes take place differently from the disciplines in the area and attribute this differential to the greater possibility of dealing with feelings, emotions, and for talking about dreams and expectations, thus sharing the reality of everyone involved. They identify the relationship between students as good, friendly, welcoming and close. Between students and teachers, the speeches show a very good and very close relationship.|
|Subcategories||Criteria||Examples of verbalizations|
|1.1. Reflexive practice||This subcategory is based on the critical-reflexive perception that the teacher has regarding his/her experiences as a teacher in the Project of Life discipline before the pandemic.||E1. The classes were different... Because they are different from the BNCC. They were so amazed by the methodology. They show more feelings and emotions, and that doesn't happen so much in BNCC classes because we had a bigger dialogue. E2. The students expose themselves in PV classes, they talk about everything to everyone. E3. Before classes were exposed through a projector and they were participating and well aware. E4. We always had conversation circles. There were some activities that were suggested by the material, which the students performed in pairs. E5. Before the pandemic, it was normal life, talking about the expectations they had for the future, regarding the dreams they had. And there were the incentives. E6. It was as if... The world closed as soon as I closed the room door and they entered their own world sharing it with everyone. So they felt so at ease, so welcomed. E7. We always took classes with conversation circles in various environments of the school. The classes were always very nice and always giving space for students to speak.|
|1.2. Positive motivations||The ideas present in this subcategory are aligned with the recognition of affectivity and social and emotional needs as an obstacle to learning.||E1. It has always been a good, friendly relationship with me, and also a healthy relationship, without problems, without conflicts, respecting their responses to inquiries. E2. The students are very close to me. E3. The relationship with me is good. It was a different relationship from the area discipline. E4. The relationship has always been approximate. We always had this close contact. E5. We worked hard with the proximity to these students, with the prospect of a prosperous future for them. E6. They see me as the protective mother, the welcoming mother, so much so that they call me a lot of mommy. So it's cozy. It's gratifying, it's good to see that they trust you. E7. Very close to the students and to me too.|
With regard to the teaching practices used to teach the PV discipline before the pandemic, they showed a methodological structure that served a diversified pedagogical work. The teachers report that the classes were diverse, participatory and that they took place in different formats than the classes in the area disciplines. One of the methodologies considered successful was the conversation circle.
For Bertoldo (2018), the conversation circle is a relationship between people creating possibilities for the production and reframing of knowledge. For the author, it also consists of a participatory method of debates that allows the development of dialogue and reflection in a shared way. Another evident aspect in the teachers' speech refers to the change of environments for the realization of classes.
In the study by Rosa (2012), which deals with differentiated classes and their effects on student learning, questionnaires were applied to teachers from public and private schools so that they could express their opinions in relation to differentiated classes. It was concluded that innovating is an important step to build knowledge and generate effective learning, and that differentiated classes can be considered a great teaching tool.
The 'positive motivation' subcategory shows that there is a relationship of affection and closeness between teachers of PV discipline and students, which differs from the relationship of other teachers with these young people. Such consideration can be verified according to the following excerpts:
E3. The relationship with me is good. It was a different relationship from the area discipline.
E6. They see me as the protective mother, the welcoming mother, so much so that they call me a lot of mommy. So it's cozy.
For Piaget (1988), affectivity is very important in the cognitive development process of humans because intelligence is accompanied by feelings that are responsible for the motivation of intellectual development.
In the context, Alsop (2005) also highlights that emotions influence and are involved with learning and the relationship between individuals in the classroom. The author lists emotions such as joy, love, happiness, well-being and hope, and considers that they can improve education and allow students to feel fulfilled in the teaching and learning process.
|Category 2. Remote teaching|
|Definition: The pandemic brought great lessons, but also great challenges. For teachers, the use of active methodologies such as the use of technologies represents a challenge, as it requires time for the transposition of the face-to-face model to the new online format and for the teacher to appropriate the use of technological resources. They also report the fear that the format of online classes does not effectively contemplate the central proposal of the discipline.|
|Subcategories||Criteria||Examples of verbalizations|
|2.2. Teacher perception||The ideas present in this subcategory reflect the teachers' ideas regarding the remote teaching of the Project of Life discipline during the period of social isolation.||E1: I think that not only me but the vast majority of teachers sometimes may not feel comfortable because all of this is new, the methodology is new, and we were not trained for it. E2: I feel insecure but I think it is feasible with a certain number of students per class. E3: For our reality, I think it doesn't work. Not all boys are used to it and will experience difficulties. E4: So, o on line rssss. I believe there will be a loss in relation to the face-to-face format. Nothing replaces physical contact, social relationships are established much more strongly when we are in person, you know. E5: It's not the same, even though I created WhatsApp groups to keep in touch, but I realize that their feedback is not being nice.|
|2.3. New technologies||They portray the teachers' perception regarding the transposition of the PV classroom lessons to the online model.||E1: I know that we have to adapt ourselves, but we are a little afraid because we still don't have the ability to work with video classes, online classes and things like that of new technologies. E2: It will never be the same as the face-to-face classes, but at least it helps, it is a support. Many of our students are suffering a lot, I'm sure of it. E5: In the PV class, we don't have to have this social distance. It is to provide this approximation between people, to provide self-confidence, do you understand? E6: As for online classes, I believe that I can translate some of the topics from PV classes to the online format, but it may not be as sustainable. E7: I feel very insecure for two reasons: first because I am not very familiar with digital platforms, but I am learning rsss. The second because I have my reservations about the effectiveness of these online classes for the Project of Life discipline.|
The closure of schools required education professionals to propose new formats to ensure the continuity of the school year. Thus, an unprecedented scenario was outlined, with many changes and, therefore, surrounded by many doubts and uncertainties. In this “new normal”, teachers needed to rethink the methodologies they would use to interact with students in an attempt to minimize the impact of isolation on the calendar of the school year.
In this perspective, the second category brings the theme of remote education, which is very important for Brazilian education and, especially, public education. This disparate peculiarity between remote education and public education opened up the inequality of access to tools and technological networks that could be used in this current need.
The educational crisis resulting from social isolation also exposed the urgency of teachers to adapt to the use of technological resources, previously little used in the face-to-face teaching format. As was evident in the teachers' statements, the challenge was the fact that the teachers felt uncomfortable with the digital environment (MACHADO, 2020).
Data revealed by a survey conducted by the Peninsula Institute (2020) in April 2020 show that 83% of Brazilian teachers do not feel prepared for remote education and 88% reveal that they taught the first virtual class after the pandemic. This observation stems from the change of an old posture based on transmission and memorization to an environment in which the teacher should propose conducting explorations.
Silva (2008), in a study about communication in the classroom and online, corroborates the findings of this study by stating that education via the internet is a great challenge for the teacher used to the classic model of teaching.
The subcategory “new technologies” expressively brings a portrait of the teachers' insecurity in transposing the face-to-face format of the Project of Life classes to a remote format. It is worth mentioning in their speeches the fear that the distance will compromise the structured pedagogical proposal for the themes addressed in the discipline, which generally favor collective dynamics that contribute so much to learning. Alberti et al., (2014) concluded that learning through group dynamics can take place not only at the theoretical level but also by being integrated with the ability to act in both known and unforeseen situations.
Moran (2007, p. 163), in his text Education Media, brings the concern to establish effective bridges between educators and the media. For the philosopher, it is necessary to “educate educators so that, together with their students, they better understand the fascinating exchange process”.
Given the above, it is worth highlighting the need to expand the horizons of schools through their teachers and managers. It is considered here the proposal of a repertoire of flexible pedagogical practices that help to overcome the many complications that may compromise the continuity of school activities.
|Category 3. Planning|
|Definition: In this category, ideas related to the teaching imagination regarding the planning of their practices after the pandemic are associated, as well as their perception about the relationship between teachers, students and the practices developed in the Project of Life class.|
|Subcategories||Criteria||Examples of verbalizations|
|3.1. Teaching imaginary||The responses reflect the teachers' unpreparedness regarding the planning of the Project of Life classes, given the uncertainties regarding the format of classes’ continuity during the pandemic period.||E1: I think that all teachers should get together for a Project of Life class, for example, in the auditorium, with music, with a warm welcome to give confidence to the students. E2: This will depend a lot on the time that we return. If, by chance, we already make a layout of PV classes online, I will know more or less the reality of how the students are doing when I return, and so understand how to welcome them. E4: So, honestly, I don't know how I would do it. Maybe we don't work on this approach issue as before, you know, and try to adapt it. E7: Honestly, I don't know. We have a structured material that helps us a lot. I have already taught PV other years, so I am close to the themes because I have discussed them in previous years, but I have never been in a situation like this.|
|3.2. Challenges||This category includes personal aspects. The challenges are centered on the fear of contamination by COVID-19, the uncertainties and the demands for support and insecurity resulting from the risk.||E1: May I am not at risk of getting the virus, of being infected too, because I am a human being first of all, before of being a professional. E2: The fear of approaching the students and of contaminating me does exist. And I know that it can interfere with my practice because I don't want to be exposed, since I have a family and I'm going home. E3: I don't even know how to tell you, I have no idea. Because, as you know, this is our reality. We don't have alcohol gel, everyone will wear their own mask, of course. And the distance between students, how will it be? E7: I am feeling lost now because in many classes there are dynamics that must be carried out in pairs or groups and, as we must keep the distance to avoid the spread of the disease, I will have to readapt these themes so that they are approached by a different perspective.|
Despite the temporary suspension of school activities, the work of the teacher became even more demanding. Their workload was expanded because, in addition to participating in training to work with new technological tools, they started to develop activities to insert in online platforms, they became available in virtual rooms to establish synchronous contact, to answer students' doubts, to fill in the electronic diary meeting the new requirements, to plan remote activities making them available to students who do not have access to the internet, and to perform simulated diagnostics of learning along these new lines. All of this in home office, therefore, using their own resources (MACHADO, 2020).
When considering that the current needs require the reinvention not only of the workplace but also of the teaching professional, the category planning was created. From the teachers' reports, aspects of the discourse emerged regarding the possibility of returning to face-to-face classes and the uncertainties about the didactic adaptations that would be necessary. The challenge of teaching a discipline with a different profile was evident, as the case of PV, due to the fear of contamination.
In order to deal with this new reality for which no one was prepared, teachers had to revisit their pedagogical plans to adapt them to the new proposal of distance activities, in an attempt of minimizing the losses in the school curricula planned for the 2020 school year.
When the plans were prepared, they had been structured for application in face-to-face format, which required the teachers to transpose didactics to the remote format. Planning played a fundamental role in proposing possibilities and strategies to reduce the negative effects of social isolation. For Freire (2011), planning is a fundamental foundation for the construction of a “courageous education, [...] an education that takes man to a new posture of his time and space” (FREIRE, 2011, p. 122).
PV classes represented a space for students to talk about what they were feeling and also for teachers to share their feelings, reinforcing the bonds between them. With the rupture in the patterns of approximation between those involved, many doubts, fears and expectations emerged for both parties.
A survey of more than 7,000 teaching professionals, conducted by Peninsula Institute in May 2020, found that 75% said they had not received emotional support. Such a situation, shared by most educational settings, resulted in the emotional illness of teachers and school teams. The risk of infection by the virus brought feelings of fear, anxiety and insecurity to any proposal to resume face-to-face activities at school (DIAS; PINTO, 2020).
Many were and still are the educational scenarios resulting from the pandemic. But, in all of them, teachers and school teams reinvented themselves, discovered possibilities, became apprentices and experienced with the students and their families the challenges and uncertainties of remote education, especially for basic education, since it is a new situation for all.
This study aimed to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of social-emotional learning from the perspectives of teachers who teach the PV discipline in basic education. We noticed that it is unanimous among teachers the understanding that PV classes represent the privileged part of a curriculum that has been reformulated to expand the possibilities of the school's performance beyond the cognitive training of young people.
However, the social isolation resulting from the pandemic led to a loss of the didactic-pedagogical identity of the PV discipline, as the proposals foreseen in the structured classes and in the teachers 'plans contemplated spaces for collective interaction that became impracticable during the pandemic, from the teachers' perspective, even after returning to face-to-face classes, without a strict prevention protocol or approval of a vaccine for the disease.
In this sense, we concluded that the suspension of classes had an impact on the pedagogical aspects of the teaching and learning process, and also on the emotional aspects of the teachers. In addition, it brought up aspects of teachers' unpreparedness to deal with digital tools on a daily basis.
Thus, it is ultimately necessary to invest in adequate assistance to the emotional health of teachers and students, so that this period is shortened and so that everyone is trained for the challenges that will follow in the post-pandemic.
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