Recepción: 07 Abril 2020
Aprobación: 24 Noviembre 2020
Resumen: La investigación tiene como objetivo general determinar la relación que existe entre las estrategias de Marketing y el Desarrollo Sostenible en el Distrito de Canta 2015. Tiene un enfoque cualitativo, tipo básica de diseño correlacional con corte transversal; es decir en esta investigación se mide el grado de relación y la intensidad de relación entre ambas variables. La población del presente estudio está constituida por 160 pobladores, considerando el 6% del total de 2794 pobladores de Canta, Lima. Se aplicó la técnica de la encuesta con dos cuestionarios; para la variable estrategias de marketing un cuestionario con selección de tipo dicotómica y un cuestionario para la variable desarrollo sostenible con escala nominal de tipo Likert.
Abstract: The general objective of the research is to determine the relationship between Marketing strategies and Sustainable Development in the District of Canta 2015. It has a qualitative approach, basic type of correlational design with transversal cut; that is to say, in this research the degree of relationship and the intensity of relationship between both variables is measured. The population of the present study is constituted by 160 inhabitants, considering 6% of the total of 2794 inhabitants of Canta, Lima. The survey technique was applied with two questionnaires; for the marketing strategies variable, a questionnaire with dichotomous selection and a questionnaire for the sustainable development variable with a nominal Likert-type scale.
Keywords: Strategies, marketing, tourism, sustainability, development Estrategias, marketing, turismo, sostenibilidad, desarrollo .
Sustainable development is aimed at a comprehensive management of resources, with the purpose of preserving resources over the years, allowing to count on natural and cultural capital. Resorting to tourism as an important development tool, it is an active part of the sustainable development strategy (Alcívar and Bravo, 2017, p.2).
Peru has more than 2,400 tourist attractions: cultural, social and natural, only 10% are exploited. Heritage attractions play an important role for the tourism industry in Peru, about two million tourists visit each year, which represents an income to the country of 2,400 million US dollars (Herrera, 2017). However, due to the lack of roads, good infrastructure in restaurants, accommodations, lack of trained personnel and a good marketing study, it does not allow increasing tourist visits as a source of income for sustainable development. The localities have become products offered to national and international clients, as part of local development, in an increasingly globalized and competitive environment (Lesmes-Ortiz and Callejas-Rodríguez, 2018).
The research makes a study on the town of Canta which is located 104 km east of the city of Lima (2 hours and 30 minutes approximately) by the valley of the Chillon River, is surrounded by crops and green areas, ideal for camping and spend a long holiday with family or friends. Most of the inhabitants of Canteño are dedicated to agriculture, the most common crop is the potato. They are dedicated to livestock and breeding of domestic animals and trout farms; offer their handicrafts, clothing made by themselves, produce: cheese, butter, blancmange, breads, medicinal plants.
In order to serve visitors and offer experiential tourism, the villagers have conditioned their houses to provide lodging, since there is very little hotel infrastructure in the area, they have a basic gastronomy, the transportation is generally old vehicles and they are being replaced by smaller and modern vehicles, the roads are being improved due to deterioration and lack of maintenance.
In the tourist town of Obrajillo that is located 15 minutes from the district of Canta here is one of the most visited attractions in the area, but in stationary form is the waterfall of San Miguel, which is visited by domestic and foreign tourists in the months of April to October being the place of refuge for camping on long holidays. The activities that take place in this area are: horseback riding, tracking or hiking.
In the route to Canta we find some tourist attractions: The Petroglyphs of Checta, with an antiquity of 1500 years. The petroglyphs represent: animals, astral maps, flora species, with more than 450 figures carved in stone. Yangas, recreational place with many fruit trees and a place called Yaso of the hundred balconies, the style of the city is colonial and the church is baroque. Tourists often seek rural tourist attractions, they value nature and contact with the natural environment more (Moreira and Almeida, 2020; Morán, Palacios and Peláez, 2017).
In order to have sustainable tourism, it is necessary to have a good infrastructure for transportation, as well as safety for the tourist; appropriate sanitation environments and a convenient road (Delgado, 2020). In Canta, the access roads are not paved, the access to the waterfall is dangerous, and there is no guarantee of safety, even with the respective signage. As Coronel points out, to promote tourism it is important to maintain in good condition of sewerage, garbage collection, electric lighting, among others, (2017, p. 3). In Canta, basic services such as restrooms have a deficient infrastructure due to sewer service delimitations.
In order to propose an improvement in the use of cultural and natural tourism resources, the World Tourism Organization points out that, in order to obtain a more balanced development, sustainable tourism must have an economic development model that benefits the quality of life in the locality and provides tourists with a high quality moment (Delgado, 2020 p. 78).
Tourism is a social phenomenon appears in the field of human groups with some particular characteristics, that is, it is a manifestation of behavior that in a certain sense is the result of social interaction that can only exist in a climate of freedom where he and individuals have powers to decide for themselves when and where to move and are in the options of doing or not doing this or that (cited in Clemente, 2017; Arteaga et al., (2018).
Sustainable development has been deepening since the Brundtland report was presented in 1987 by the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, the most important conferences were held in Stockholm, Rio de Janeiro and Johannesburg in 1972, 1992 and 2002 (Malavé and Fernández, 2020). The UN (2020), indicates that sustainable development is a development that is going to remain in time giving the opportunity to future generations to cover their needs (Rivera, 2019, p. 98).
It is also mentioned that for a resource to be sustainable, the intervention of norms and laws is necessary for its regeneration. Potentially for a marketing strategy to be successful in a tourism project it is necessary to choose well, among other elements, the right place, the problem to be solved.
Currently, cities are promoted through marketing in order to position them as tourist destinations, so that they invite visitors to visit and generate an experience that meets their expectations, increasing income to the locality and also creating opportunities that strengthen the local economy and social welfare (Lesmes-Ortiz and Callejas-Rodriguez, 2018, p. 56).
For the development of sustainable tourism, joint planning must be carried out with different sectors, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders (Rivera, 2019). In different countries, community-based tourism has been implemented and has become a local development strategy, making rural communities the protagonists (Alcívar and Freire, 2018). While it is true that tourism is being practiced with more sensitivity, it is of vital importance to employ sustainability in its planning and execution, with the participation of governmental and non-governmental entities (Bohórquez, 2017, p 56).
The development of a marketing plan allows us to correctly analyze the context in which the destination under study is located, which facilitates decision-making. It is an effective and efficient way to guarantee its long-term duration (Fiallos, 2019). In addition, within the plan should be considered the use of information technologies (Morán, Palacios and Peláez, 2017); such as social networks, internet and influencers who visit and show the goodness of the destination (Handan, Kadakoğlu, Çetin and Bamoi, 2019).
This district limits in a very uniform way the natural attractions, the population is very conscious about the benefit that can be obtained from it, it takes care of the environment with much suspicion, the term "Theory of sustainable development" was mentioned for the first time officially in the Brundtland report in 1987 where it is said that sustainable development meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and is divided into 3 dimensions: ecological, social and economic.
The importance of research favors the conservation, promotion and planning of tourist attractions, through marketing, which is currently one of the most important strategic axes seeking economic, sociocultural and environmental benefits; guaranteeing the visitor's experience (Ramos and Cevallos, 2020).
Materials and Methods
The research is a basic, non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design. The sample size will consist of 160 inhabitants of the district of Canta, Lima; considering 6% of the total 2794. The sampling was probabilistic.
The technique used to collect data on marketing strategies and sustainable development was a survey, which is a form of quantitative data collection Barros y Turpo, (2018), (Orellana and Sanchez, 2006). Two questionnaires were completed, one to measure the perception of marketing strategies and the other to measure the perception of sustainable development. In this sense, the validity of the instrument was assessed by experts who evaluated its applicability for its pertinence, relevance and clarity, making observations and suggestions for improvement.
In the present study the reliability procedure was used where a value of Cronbach's Alpha = ,782 was obtained; the measurement and the coefficient was processed through the SPSS statistical program. Therefore, the instrument is acceptable.
The present research work uses the statistical, mathematical model which refers to the investigative techniques used in the statistical and mathematical procedures to analyze, interpret and the data collected with the purpose of establishing its statistical graphical presentation for a better understanding of the investigation.
The method of analysis was carried out by means of statistics and by organizing the data. The SPSS version 21 software was used to determine the degree of relationship between the variables using Spearman's correlation statistic.
By means of descriptive analysis, frequency distribution tables and percentage distribution graphs, comparative graphs by dimensions, contingency tables relating the two variables and bar graphs were prepared. The nonparametric test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, was used.
According to the perception of the inhabitants of Obrajillo, 1% consider the level of marketing strategies to be inadequate, 79% say it is adequate, and 19% say it is very adequate. For each dimension, there is a group of 21% of the population that in the price strategy dimension says that the level is inadequate, 74% adequate, 6% very adequate; 3% in the promotion strategy dimension say that the level is inadequate, 45% adequate, 53% very adequate; 12% in the product strategy dimension say that the level is inadequate, 67% adequate, 21% very adequate; finally, 3% in the market strategy dimension say that the level is inadequate, 81% adequate, 16% very adequate.
In addition, it is concluded that the promotion strategy dimension is the dimension of marketing strategies that has the best results compared to the other three dimensions.
According to the perception of Obrajillo's residents, 1% consider the level of sustainable development to be not optimal, 63% say it is optimal, and 37% say it is very optimal.
The results for each dimension, there is a group of 55% of inhabitants who in the social dimension of sustainable development state that the level is very optimal, 45% optimal, none not optimal; 28% in the economic dimension of sustainable development state that the level is very optimal, 71% optimal, 1% not optimal; finally, 30% in the environmental dimension of sustainable development state that the level is very optimal, 68% optimal, 2% not optimal. General hypothesis test. Ho: There is no positive relationship between marketing strategies and sustainable development in the tourist community of Obrajillo, Canta 2015.
Ha: There is a positive relationship between marketing strategies and sustainable development in the tourist community.
The results of the statistical analysis show the existence of a relationship r = 0.753 between the variables: marketing strategies and sustainable development. This degree of correlation indicates that the relationship between the variables is positive and has a high level of correlation. The significance of p=0.000 shows that p is less than 0.05, which allows us to point out that the relationship is significant, therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded that: There is a positive relationship between marketing strategies and sustainable development in the tourist community of.
From the results of the descriptive and inferential statistics concerning the relationship of marketing strategies with sustainable development, it is observed that 79% of the marketing strategies variable totally agree with the questions asked, while only 1% totally disagree, therefore the relationship is shown at a moderate relational level, likewise the sustainable development variable, 27.6% and 19% respectively agree and totally agree with the items of the questionnaire applied, therefore their relationship is also moderate, and 7.1% totally disagree. On the correlation level we appreciate that the correlation is 0.651, therefore, it presents a high correlation, also the calculated t value (10.63) is higher than the value found in the table, critical t (1.645), the null hypothesis (H0) should be rejected and the proposed hypothesis (Hp) accepted, concluding that there is a significant relationship between marketing strategies and sustainable development in the tourist community of Obrajillo, Canta 2015. On the other hand, there is an association between the variables and a significant level of correlation.
Likewise, we can also note similar findings in other research such as that of Rodriguez (2011) who concludes in his research that there is a significant relationship between marketing strategies and the influence on the growth of regional restaurants in northern Lima. It also coincides with the results of Espino (2009), who indicates that there is a statistically significant relationship between management and sustainable development with a spearman value of r= 0.720 high correlation, affirming that there is a relationship between marketing strategies and sustainable development. Likewise, the findings obtained by Fernandez, who conducted an investigation on Marketing Strategies to promote the Moche Routes, are similar, the results were contrasted with a Pearson correlation, r =0.807 establishing a high correlation between the variables Marketing Strategies and promotion of the Moche Routes and p =ooo(p< 0.05), affirming that there is a high significance. Therefore, it can be affirmed that there is a significant and direct relationship between the variables.
Being the objective of the research to determine the positive relationship between marketing strategies and sustainable development in the tourist community, and having obtained as a result of a sample of 160 inhabitants of the statistical analysis account for a relationship is positive and have a high correlational level. The significance of p=0.000 shows that p is less than 0.05, which allows us to point out that the relationship is significant (r=0.753 and p=0.000).
In addition, we can affirm that there is a positive relationship between price strategy and sustainable development in the tourist community (r=0.490 and p=0.016). There is a positive relationship between the strategy in promotion and sustainable development in the tourist community of Obrajillo, Canta 2015 (r=0.754 and p=0.000). There is a positive relationship between the product strategy and sustainable development in the tourist community (r=0.684 and p=0.000). There is a positive relationship between the strategy in plaza and sustainable development in the tourist community of Obrajillo, Canta 2015 (r=0.493 and p=0.000). The level of tourism marketing strategies in Obrajillo, Canta 2015, has a tendency to the adequate level (79%). The level of sustainable development in Obrajillo, Canta 2015, has a tendency to the optimal level (63%).
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