Families in the Learning of Students with Cognitive Disabilities
Sinergias educativas, vol.. 6, no. 3, 2021
Universidad de Oriente

Sinergias educativas
Universidad de Oriente, México
ISSN-e: 2661-6661
Periodicity: Semestral
vol. 6, no. 3, 2021

Received: 14 June 2020

Accepted: 27 January 2021

This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International.

Abstract: The interactions of people with disabilities are developed from a character of coexistence represented through dynamics of social affinity, where individuals who do not show this condition are preferentially placed, being the family nucleus the fundamental basis in the quality of life and in their human development, therefore, this article aims to determine the influence that families have on the learning of students with cognitive disabilities of the Educational Institution Liceo Moderno Semillas de Alegría 2018-2019, for which, a population sample of 8 students of the Institution under study was taken, being of qualitative character, descriptive type, through a questionnaire type instrument addressed to parents and teachers, finding as results that in 87% of the cases the commitment of the parents was low, and that the determinant for the academic success of the student was more linked to the actions of the guidance teacher.

Keywords: Families, Learning, students, cognitive disabilities, cognitive disabilities.

Resumen: La presente de investigación "Análisis de la implementación de medidas para la vigilancia, prevención y control de COVID-19 en la Unidad de Gestión Educativa Local Ventanilla, 2020", tuvo como objetivo general determinar el impacto de la implementación de medidas para la vigilancia, prevención y control de COVID-19 en la Unidad de Gestión Educativa Local Ventanilla, 2020. El método fue de tipo descriptivo, con enfoque cualitativo; de diseño no experimental basado en la teoría fundamentada; la población es el personal de dicha entidad pública. Se utilizó la técnica de revisión bibliográfica y documental de fuentes primarias. Se obtuvo las siguientes conclusiones: a) Las medidas que se implementaron en la Unidad de Gestión Educativa Local Ventanilla favorecieron de manera regular a la vigilancia, prevención y control de COVID-19 en el trabajo. b) La virtualización de la mayoría de trámites administrativos contribuye a la optimización de las medidas de vigilancia, prevención y control de COVID-19 en la Unidad de Gestión Educativa Local Ventanilla y c) El riesgo de contagio por COVID-19 en la Unidad de Gestión Educativa Local Ventanilla se mantiene mientras haya personal que realice trabajo presencial.

Palabras clave: Gestión Educativa, medidas de vigilancia, prevención, control.


In Colombia, inclusive education is based on the accessibility that people with disabilities have to educational environments, which is intended to close inequality gaps and generate levels of equity with conditions of equality within the difference, therefore, it is relevant to note the influence that parents and support networks have in this process since according to (Ortega et al., 2007)

The complexity is given from the experiences that parents refer to when they express that they have to face a series of difficulties for which they are not prepared during the course of their children's growth, hence the great importance of having instances that support them in the dissolution of specific situations regarding the way in which they should provide accompaniment (p.120).

Now, In the world there coexist approximately one billion people with disabilities, and in Colombia 2,624,898 representing 6.3% of the total population, this sector is among the most marginalized minorities in the world and are the ones with the worst health outcomes and highest poverty rates Pulido & Herrera , (2018), people with this condition, as family members and caregivers face daily physical, social and cultural barriers, preventing them from their free development.

Since the Statutory Law 1618 of 2013 in Colombia, persons with disabilities must be guaranteed their rights, which must be expressed in the programs and plans with a participation from equality and equity, therefore, children and adolescents must have the tools and pedagogical processes necessary to access inclusive education, as well as their caregivers and family members must also have this service.

In Tolima, the Progresa Foundation serves 1561 people with intellectual disabilities, and locally the Educational Institution Liceo Moderno Semillas de Alegría provides spaces for the training of teachers and parents given to the implementation of strategies that allow an adequate treatment and teaching to this type of population, but it was found by the research team formed by the students Laura Estefany Acosta Guzmán, Ingrid Yuranny García Rondón, Angie Yanileth Soscue Herrán that in this institution 5% of the students have cognitive disabilities, being constant lack of interest of parents in the processes developed by their children in this condition, Angie Yanileth Soscue Herrán that in this institution 5% of the students present cognitive disabilities, being a constant the lack of interest of the parents in the processes that develop their children in this condition, since they do not attend the activities that the institution performs, such as parent schools, delivery of academic reports, among others, which generated the following question What is the influence that families have on the learning of students with cognitive disabilities of the Educational Institution Liceo Moderno Semillas de Alegría 2018-2019? therefore, the following goals are established. In this article, it is established as a goal to determine the influence that families have on the learning of students with cognitive disabilities of the Educational Institution Liceo Moderno Semillas de Alegría 2018-2019.

The family displays a vital influence on the child, since it is the one who participates in the ethical and moral, those customs, beliefs and especially the values from their daily interaction, "since from birth begins to live the formative influence of the family environment" (Sanchez, 2006, p. 34) through the interaction with their children, parents provide experiences that can influence the growth and development of the child and influence, positively or negatively, in the learning process (Berganza et al., 2017) . On the other hand, (Abreu et al., 2018) states that "parental involvement in their child's education is important for school success, but not all children have parents who are involved in their school"; this family influence is particularly important when in the family a child presents some type of disability.

From this perspective, 15 antecedents were taken up in reference to the study in question in the last 5 years, but it was noted that two of them were the most relevant and that they contributed greatly to the analysis process, being these: The study by Ortiz-Colón et al., who developed a research aimed at understanding the perception of caregivers on risk and resilience factors in the accompaniment of children with disabilities, was based on a qualitative methodology, from a phenomenological design, since it focused on the experiences of the participants and involved listening to them going to the situation in question, and the study conducted by Ortiz-Colón et al., (2018) on the quality of family life of children and adolescents with disabilities associated with congenital anomalies, attending the clinical genetics consultation of a reference center in southwestern Colombia. Implementing the model of family quality of life proposed by the University of Kansas, and the Family Quality of Life Scale adapted for Colombia. The instrument evaluated the indicators and factors of the scale. Each factor was analyzed in terms of importance and satisfaction assigned by the caregiver.

Now, the theoretical approaches that guided and gave meaning to the research were around the Ecological Theory of human development of Kerr, (2016) which addresses the psychological and social development of the individual, from the existence of an ecological relationship between the subject and the area of influence, where adaptation processes are determined by the characteristics and qualities of each being, and their relationship with the changing properties of the social environment in which it is located, on the other hand, the general theory of systems of (Gamboa et al., 2019) and Kerr, (2016) to understand the approach to the different concepts of the respondents in the research who have a differential disciplinary vision, which established a position of understanding and inclusion of learners with cognitive disabilities within the educational context, which allowed them to give appreciations of the relationship of parents with their children and their participation in the processes developed within the institution under study, interpreting the behavioral patterns and the processes of internalization of knowledge and learning, finally, the theory of social and cultural development of the participation of the different actors and in the scenarios of the educational institution and the home, where a clear model to follow is evident, the imitator in this case the father or mother within the home and the learners within the school as referents for the students with some disability, the inclusive and humanistic pedagogy as the central system.

Finally, the legal framework is delineated from the World Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which led to the establishment of the law 18418 celebrated in 2008, the law 18437 of education in Article 8 denoting diversity and educational inclusion, Article 18 regarding equal opportunity, Article 33 with the modalities of formal education, Article 72 with the rights of students in any educational center.

At the national level from the Political Constitution of Colombia in Articles 13, 44 specifically, Law 361 of 1997 on educational inclusion, Law 1098 of 2006 Code of Children and Adolescents, Law 1306 of 2009 on health, education and rehabilitation for people with disabilities, Decree 366 of 2009 in the framework of the fundamental rights of people who present barriers to learning and participation due to their condition of disability, at the level of El Espinal the Agreement number 19 of December 23, 2019 "whereby the public policy on disability of the Municipality of El Espinal Tolima for the period 2016-2026 is approved and adopted" is registered.

Materials and methods

Within the research that presented a qualitative character, with a non-probabilistic population sample by convenience for a total of 8 students with cognitive disabilities of the institution under study, we worked with a descriptive depth within a synchronous temporal scope, in relation to the primary information taken through the semi-structured survey technique with the questionnaire instrument, which was applied to the parents or caregivers of the students under study, and to the teachers of the students with cognitive disabilities, likewise, it should be noted that secondary information was taken in reference to records, databases provided by the Institution Liceo Moderno Semillas de Alegria, and tertiary from empirical that established documents in reference to the subject studied.


When establishing the characterization of students with cognitive disabilities of the Institution Liceo Moderno Semillas De Alegría, it was evidenced that of the 390 students enrolled during the years 2018-2019, 8 presented this condition of disability, which are in learning processes in primary and secondary education.

When taking the academic report of students with cognitive disabilities for the years 2018-2019, to identify the accumulated grades of each of the learners under study, a substantial drop was evidenced between the grades of students 1 to 4 between 2018 to 2019 since the other subjects studied did not report grades for 2018.

Table 2

Comparison of Participant's Notes with Disabilities.

Teachers largely consider that the academic progress of students in condition of disability was altered during 2019 due to the lack of accompaniment by their parents.


It is determined that the influence exerted by the participation of the family in the academic development of students with cognitive disabilities of the Liceo Moderno Semillas de Alegría Institution is relevant and determining, since the development of their humanity is given by the social dynamics that are conjugated within their environment of influence, the father, the mother and the student as their main ones to imitate, but the central and formative axis of their being is given by the family, therefore, teachers and families consider each other as reciprocal and complementary entities in the formation of the students.

It is concluded that the condition of cognitive disability that is present in the Educational Institution is given with relevance to mild and moderate intellectual development disorder, and that the ages of the learners registered during the years 2018 -2019 range between 5 and 23 years.

The results in the academic records for the years 2018 -2019 show a variation with an upward trend during 2019 in 83% of the students, which suggested that the active and present dynamics exercised by parents is relevant in the educational development of students with a disability.

Finally, it is fixed, that although, the analysis given from the perspective of the teachers of the educational Institution in reference to the students and the participation and accompaniment of their parents during the academic process of the years 2018-2019 and with the registration of the academic Bulletins, other relevant factors must be taken into account to qualify and these are; the level of disability presented by each individual and the inclusive education that is present in the institution in reference to the culture of their peers without limitations.


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