Abstract: The comprehension of written texts is considered one of the tasks that poses the greatest difficulties for students of the educational levels of the Peruvian system, for this reason the present research aims to determine the influence of sensitized reading of stories on the development of the inferential capacity in students of the first grade of secondary education of the Educational Institution of Application Marcos Durand Martel de Huánuco, Peru, 2017. The design is quasi-experimental of the 76 students, 30 were selected, for which an experimental group and a control group, applying a pre-test and a post-test, the applied instrument contains 8 texts and a total of 28 closed questions. The Student's t test was applied in which a significance level of 95% reliability was set (α = 0.052 tails); whose result is that the p-value is less than the significance level (0.000 <0.05). It was concluded that there are statistically significant differences between the scores before and after having applied the sensitized readings of stories in the development of inferential capacity in the experimental group, which means that sensitized readings significantly influence the development of inferential capacities in students.
Keywords: Sensitized readings, stories, inferential capacity, secondary education.
Resumen: Se considera a la comprensión de textos escritos como una de las tareas que plantea mayores dificultades a los estudiantes de los niveles educativos del sistema peruano, por ello la presente investigación tiene por objetivo determinar la influencia de las lecturas sensibilizadas de cuentos en el desarrollo de la capacidad inferencial en los estudiantes del primer grado de educación secundaria de la Institución Educativa de Aplicación Marcos Durand Martel de Huánuco, Perú, 2017. El diseño es cuasi-experimental de los 76 estudiantes se seleccionaron 30, para de los cuales se conformaron un grupo experimental y un grupo control, aplicando un pre test y un post test, el instrumento aplicado contiene 8 textos y un total de 28 preguntas cerradas. Se aplicó la prueba de t de Student en el cual se fijó un nivel de significación de 95% de confiabilidad (α = 0,052 colas); cuyo resultado obtenidos es que el p-valor es menor que el nivel de significación (0,000 < 0,05).Se llegó a la conclusión de que existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los puntajes antes y después de haber aplicado las lecturas sensibilizadas de cuentos en el desarrollo de la capacidad inferencial en el grupo experimental, lo que significa que las lecturas sensibilizadas influyen significativamente en el desarrollo de las capacidades inferenciales en los estudiantes.
Palabras clave: lecturas sensibilizadas, cuentos, capacidad inferencial, educación secundaria.
Influence of sensitized readings of stories on the development of inferential ability in secondary education.
Received: 03 August 2020
Accepted: 01 November 2020
Comprehension of written texts is considered one of the most difficult tasks for students in the Peruvian educational system. The skills required to understand a written text can be taught and learned by means of different strategies, for which it is necessary to identify the problems faced by students of different ages and social sectors when faced with a narrative text. The present research aims to determine the influence of sensitized reading of stories on the development of inferential skills in secondary school students.
The habit of reading provides several benefits, among them the acquisition of knowledge, understanding of other realities, improvement of our communicative capacity, and the development of analytical, problem-solving and association skills (Tinta, 2019). According to cognitive models, text comprehension is a dynamic process of constructing coherent representations and inferences at multiple levels of the text and context. (Van Den Broek, 1997).
Education, assumes an important role in addressing inequities present throughout life, allows the improvement of people, being a fundamental part in the technological, scientific and innovative aspect for the development of the country (Gordillo, 2018). For the achievement of social development, competent and committed professionals are required, essential of contemporary higher education. For López and Narváez (2019). According to the results of the PISA 2018 test, Peru obtained an average of 401 in the reading comprehension test, improving in relation to that achieved in 2015, the result was 398, however it is ranked 64th out of 77 countries of the International Student Assessment program of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (Minedu, 2019). These results ratify the deficient level of students in reading comprehension in its literal, inferential and critical levels. (Tinta, 2019).
The data reveal that text comprehension is the main problem in students' performance, as well as in the quality of their learning. (González, K., 2008). Reading comprehension is essential for all educational levels (Guevara, Guerra, Delgado, & Flores, 2014). The entrance to secondary schooling implies for the student a series of cognitive linguistic challenges related to conceptual learning from disciplinary texts. (Roldán, 2019). The low level of reading comprehension affects both the academic context and personal and professional development, it is a social problem (León, Escudero and Olmos, 2012). he mentions we read and write with the aim of convincing, requesting, arguing, regulating behaviors, among others. Language is the means and the end of the development of human thought. (Magdalena., 2019).
It is necessary to apply cognitive strategies to minimize the percentage of students with lack of reading habits. One of the causes is due to the evaluation based on the textual repetition of what is read, rarely admitting an idea of their own mental elaboration, when, precisely, this could be an individual representation (comprehension) achieving an effective and deep reading, as a consequence of a dialogic relationship with the text. When this happens, the valuable opportunity to guide the student in reading as a logical, meaningful and pleasurable process is lost. The student, unmotivated, is lost for reading; perhaps, later on, secondary education can recover him, although it will be in a limited way.
Currently the practice of reading stories has been lost due to the lack of availability of parents, because reading arises at home; The lack of training of teachers to properly use this medium, causing apathy and frustration on the part of students at the time of narration. The school, in general, wastes a crucial moment with the communication courses by working the text linked to science or literature, far from the real and concrete life of children. Likewise, to develop skills in the reading-writing process, other disciplines are needed to optimize basic psychological processes such as attention, perception and memory, related to the improvement of reading, writing and argumentative skills, since reading is a complete activity, providing information, reflection, analysis, effort and concentration.
The story, used as a pedagogical strategy, contributes to create learning environments and teaching practices, captivating students and attracting them to learning. One of the keys to the pedagogical success of this teaching tool is that what it seeks to teach is transmitted in a natural way and gives free rein to the students' own interpretation. It is learned through the situations told in the stories from generation to generation.
This research proposal seeks to rethink the situation observed in elementary schools, offers teachers enriching tools, stimulates students to use their oral expressions by raising awareness of the readings as part of the research, by telling them stories of the region, turning the educational process into something meaningful for them.
Reading is a complex human phenomenon studied mainly by an area of neuroscience called cognitive psychology, an interdisciplinary scientific specialty, which takes important contributions from both brain and cognitive sciences and psychology in general to elaborate rigorous scientific models trying to understand and explain what happens inside the brain during the process of reading and other similar cognitive phenomena.
Goodman (1982) is the leader of the psycholinguistic model. This model is based on the following assumptions: reading is a language process, readers are language users, linguistic concepts and methods can explain reading, nothing readers do is accidental; everything is the result of their interaction with the text. Reading requires thought processes, to understand a complex activity and the psycholinguistic component is the articulating axis, when the reader has insufficient cognitive strategies, comprehension is executed inadequately. (Moreno, et al., 2010)
Braslavsky, (2005), to encourage comprehension in narrative stories, before reading the teacher should raise a question about its purposes; generate hypotheses derived from the title, make illustrations, know the author's name, etc.; During reading: generate and answer questions, seek the meaning of words unknown to students; and after reading: relive what was read through oral retelling, make drawings and dramatizations, etc. (Lalama et al, 2018), state that school libraries are an important proposal for the development of skills and reading habits, it also implies a favorable environment of free access to information for the educational community, creating learning situations that contribute to the development of art, science and culture of the populations.
The UNESCO report, Quality Education for All: A Matter of Human Rights (2007), states that education must promote traditional basic competencies, in addition to providing the necessary elements to fully exercise citizenship; contribute to a culture of peace and to the transformation of society. Therefore, we affirm that teaching how to learn to learn, to coexist and to undertake in the school of the 21st century has become an imperative if we intend to respond to the challenges of the complexity of daily, social, regional, national and global political life, as well as to reconcile this unavoidable social responsibility with a personal life project.
Therefore, the existence of the sensitization of readings is a communication, active and creative process from which a transformation is promoted, in activities and behaviors, benefiting society with assertive information and recommended means to awaken and raise awareness about a particular problem. The authorities of the Educational Institution should take into consideration the implementation of the sensitized stories as a didactic resource, it can help the student to overcome the difficulties with the learning of the readings.
When arriving at the classroom, the decision on what to teach should be in accordance with the educational purposes, in balance with the social demands, those of personal development and those derived from the political, social and cultural project to be promoted through school education. Thus, the capacities are associated with cognitive and socio-affective processes, they guarantee the integral formation of the person; they are manifested through a content or set of them and constitute a base from which new knowledge continues to be processed, incorporated and produced. Due to this comprehensive and integrating nature, the capabilities cross horizontally and vertically the curricular proposals of the different levels and modalities of the educational system and must be addressed by the different disciplines, areas or curricular spaces in order to achieve more and better learning for all.
Several investigations have shown that children have more difficulties in answering inferential questions as opposed to literal or explicit ones (Paris et al, 1991). The process of replacing implicit information in the text is based on the generation of inferences. The ability to generate inferences is fundamental to be able to understand a text. (Abusamra, Cartoceti, Ferreres, De Beni & Cornoldi, 2009).
Inferences are the set of mental processes based on the information offered by a text, and the mental representation processed by the reader, producing new implicit knowledge in the reader. They are constructed when, by means of relationships and associations, the local or global meaning of the text is understood (Parodi, 2005). The inferential process is part of complex thinking, it challenges the student to innovate, create and integrate knowledge, it is essential to understand and solve problems, the basis for the development of the educational, pedagogical and didactic model. (Mora, 2020).
Inferences are made in three ways, connecting events with others in a story, filling in the gaps in the text, and adding events from the context and the reader's schemas to the text. The inferential dynamic becomes essential for comprehension tasks. (Ferreiro, E., 1982). For the comprehension of a text, the reader uses the acquired knowledge, in addition to the inferential capacity and links it to the social context. (Guerra, E., and Forero, C., 2015).
Developing the inferential capacity is possible through the detective story due to its enigmatic character, the inconclusive situations, its unconventional structure and the implicit actions that the reader must reveal, leading the student to make inferences.
Most of the researches consider that the main problem about reading difficulties are the failures of the decoding process that a subject faces for reading comprehension. (Juric, L., Andrés, M., Introzzi, I. & Richard's, M., 2007). Therefore, didactic strategies should be implemented motivating students to read and different types of readings in order to improve students' reading comprehension.
This was also stated by (Zapata, S., and Esthefany, M., 2016). In their thesis had the purpose of designing a Didactic Manual of Comprehensive Reading in the area of Language and Literature for students of Fourth Year of Basic Education, these highlighted the importance of reading and its influence in the teaching-learning process, in the intellectual development and the construction of new knowledge. Thus, they propose new didactic strategies to achieve reading comprehension of students, to adopt the habit of reading, with the implementation of pedagogical, technological and administrative resources.
So also (Caballero, 2017), which analyzes the relationship between reading habits and reading comprehension of computer science students of the institute of higher education "La Recoleta, Yanahuara Arequipa. A descriptive, correlational and transversal design was used. Two measurement instruments were applied to a sample of 10 computer science students: a questionnaire on reading habits and a second questionnaire on reading comprehension. The results indicate a lack of significant relationship between reading habit and reading comprehension. From the statistical analysis of each of the two variables, a significant difference was found between the level of reading habit of the students and the level of reading comprehension, 69% of the sample is in the medium level of the reading habit scale, while 55% of the sample is in the very low level of reading comprehension.
The sensitizing readings of stories as memory enablers are considered relevant, they contribute to a better teaching-learning process, thus obtaining a significant learning. This method can be considered as the basis for the development of language, thus increasing oral expression, stimulating imagination, awakening curiosity, giving free rein to fantasy, softening tensions and helping to resolve conflictive states of the students.
Therefore, the development of the research intends an active participation of the students, by listening and respecting the opinions of others and finding in group the solution to the problems posed, thus promoting the inferential capacity. It is important to carry out this research if it demonstrates the development of the inferential capacity, includes a different way of presenting the sensitized stories and becomes something pleasant and meaningful for the student.
It is important to propose pedagogical practices and give importance to textual comprehension and production in the teaching-learning process (Dománico, J., 2008). It is committed to learning environments for reading, from less extensive readings until the student becomes accustomed to reading a complete book.
Both teachers and parents benefit from the implementation of pedagogical actions based on the sensitized stories, because they contribute to the development of a taste for reading, while at the same time strengthening their affective dimension, and the strengthening of coexistence values, especially respect for their peers. Thus, teachers should use effective, didactic, innovative and constructivist pedagogical strategies. (Soledispa, Arce, Zuña and Ramos, 2019). Also consider training to carry out a correct planning, solve problems, consolidating the pedagogical practice towards constructivism. (Muñoz, 2020; Solis, 2019).
In the face of globalization, education makes efforts to ensure that students use new technologies and digital environments in order to enhance skills, experiences and abilities to face different experiences (Rodríguez, 2019). For López and Narváez (2019) the use and incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education, arises as a substantiated need, in the field of learning. (Ponce, 2018; Castagnola et al. 2020).
The present research has a quantitative, descriptive and explanatory approach, with a quasi-experimental design. For the variable sensitized reading of stories, the following dimensions were used: textual and discursive; and for the variable development of inferential capacity, the dimensions popular, literary and science fiction stories were used.
The population under study consisted of the students of the first grade of secondary education of the Institución Educativa de Aplicación Marcos Durand Martel de Huánuco - Perú, 2017, in total there were 76 students from 4 sections, the study sample was selected through a non-probabilistic sampling of the intentional type, the students of section "C" were chosen as the experimental group and the students of section "D" were chosen as the control group
For data collection, the following techniques and instruments were used: documentary research, student coding and tabulation. The data are presented in statistical tables of the results of the experimental and control groups, and the results are also presented in the appendices for verification of the case.
The applied instrument contains 8 texts and a questionnaire of 28 items, of inferential characteristic that are popular, literary and science fiction stories. The questions are closed, multiple choice, to avoid interference, comprehension - written expression; they have 3 alternatives each one in order to minimize random interventions at the time the student selects the answer.
The results are presented in statistical tables and figures; these results were analyzed through descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS statistical software version 24.0, which was oriented to the achievement of the specific objectives of the research. For the reliability of the instruments, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used and Student's t-statistic was applied to test the research hypothesis. To analyze the normality of the data obtained during the research, the Shapiro-Wilk test was applied because it contained a sample of 30 students; a confidence level of 95% was considered; if the p-value is less than the significance level (p < ), athen the H0 (null hypothesis) is rejected, otherwise it is accepted.
For data collection and research, certain protocols were followed, such as requesting authorization permits from the Director of the Instituto Superior Pedagógico Marcos Duran Martel of the city of Huánuco and the validity of the instrument by means of expert judgment.
The results of the research were organized from the quantitative point of view obtained by the students of the Institución Educativa de Aplicación Marcos Duran Martel from the pre-test and post-test, the results obtained by the students of the first grade "C" conforms the experimental group and the students of section "D" are members of the control group of the first grade of secondary education in the year 2017, the results are exposed from a descriptive perspective, then the research hypothesis will be contrasted. Subsequently, the exposed findings are discussed, to arrive at conclusions and suggestions.
For the analysis of the study hypothesis, the scores obtained in the pre-test by the students of the experimental and control groups were analyzed, then the comparison between the scores obtained in the pre- and post-test by the students of the experimental group after having applied the study variable will be made and finally the relationship between the post-test scores of the experimental and control groups will be determined.
According to the results of the pre-test scores of the experimental and control groups in Table 2, we conclude statistically similar results between the scores, before having applied the readings in the development of the inferential capacity in the students of the first grade of secondary education.
According to the results in Table 3, Student's t test for related samples. The p-value is less than the significance level (0.001 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there are statistically significant differences between the scores before and after having applied the readings in the development of inferential ability in the experimental group.
Figure 1. Group pre-test averages
According to Figure 1, the result of the pre-test showed that the average obtained was 14 points for the members of the experimental group, while the control group had an average of 12.71 points, with a difference of 1.29 points.
Figure 2. Post-test averages of the groups.
Both groups were given a post-test based on 20 points, as shown in Figure 1, and the result of the post-test, the average obtained was 16.75 for the members of the experimental group, while the control group had an average of 13.07 points, with a difference of 3.68 points.
With respect to the general research hypothesis formulated, the results confirm that the t Student for related samples. The p-value is less than the significance level (0.001 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and it is concluded that there are statistically significant differences between the scores before and after having applied the sensitized readings in the development of inferential ability in the experimental group, this confirms with the results obtained from Caballero (2017) where he states that there is a significant difference between the level of students' reading habit and the level of reading comprehension, since 69% of the sample is in the medium level of the reading habit scale.
In the same way (Zapata and Esthefany 2016). In their thesis didactic manual of comprehensive reading in the area of language and literature for students in the fourth year of basic education, which highlights the influence of reading in the teaching-learning process, in intellectual development and the construction of new knowledge, thus proposing new didactic strategies for reading comprehension, strategies to adopt the habit of reading, with the implementation of pedagogical, technological and administrative resources.